Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Cost-based and Competitive -based pricing Essays

Cost-based and Competitive - based evaluating Essays Cost-based and Competitive - based evaluating Essay Cost-based and Competitive - based evaluating Essay When choosing which of the two techniques will be progressively viable in our working field we contemplated the focal points and inconveniences of the two strategies. We have concluded that the market in nowadays is too unsafe to even consider using cost-based estimating for our item since it is difficult to foresee what will be the response of the buyers and furthermore we don't have the foggiest idea how well the item will be sold. In the event that we neglect to sell the anticipated measure of our watches we will be compelled to build the cost so as to spare our organization from chapter 11 . To summarize everything there are such a large number of impediments in the utilization of cost-based estimating. Then again such isn't the situation of serious based estimating where weaknesses are less and dangers not all that perilous. We have concluded that the main hazard while picking this way is in the event that we set a cost marginally higher than the creation cost and the adversary brands keep a lot of the market we are definitely going to bankrupt. Additionally serious based valuing offers a wide assortment of sub-techniques which can prompt higher benefits. In this sort of strategy we are intently watching the opposition the nature of their items, costs they set and their capacity to get by in a ceaseless value war and the presentation of an adversary brand. We won't utilize a strategy for high estimating so as to infer that our item is exceptionally extraordinary in light of the fact that there are such a large number of distinguished contenders and it will be near difficult to take over even a little portion of the market while offering costs as high as theirs. Our organization is additionally against the strategy of utilizing savage evaluating. That is an entirely contrary strategy for our image of watches it is illicit in certain nations and is again dangerous if the opposition can react to this technique. We need more funds to pull this off. We expect to assume control over a huge portion of the market not immediately yet gradually and consistently. We are additionally not aiming to make a market specialty for our item. Our primary objective is to offer a cost marginally higher that our creation cost and lower than contender costs so as to make a little benefit while setting up ourselves as a significant watch brand. Taking everything into account, by considering all the data introduced in the examination and the points of interest of the estimating we chose the use of the contender orientated technique for our item so as to get significant portion of the market. Obviously, there are numerous focal points and detriments for picking both the cost-based and the contender orientated technique. Having as a primary concern that our item is broadly utilized we thought about that this estimating procedure will assist us with wiping out an incredible piece of the opposition and fulfill our clients needs and needs, which are our points. This evaluating strategy will be in help for the quick infiltration of our item available and in the field of business connections. We run the determined danger of insolvency if there are insufficient deals and if clients are not persuaded in the nature of our item. Else, we will have the chance to affirm available with an extraordinary brand name and a decent organization position. Reference index Sources utilized: 1. Blythe, J. (2001). Basics of Marketing (second ed.). FT: Prentice Hall. 2. Kotler and Armstrong. (2001). Standards of Marketing (ninth ed.). Prentice corridor. 3. Merchant, D. (2001). Standards Practice of Marketing (third ed.). McGraw-Hill Company. 4. Mercer, D. (1992). Promoting. Blackwell Publishers. 5. Heated, M. (1994). The Marketing Book (third ed.). Butterworth Heinemann. 6. Etzel, M. (2004). Promoting (twelfth ed.). Mcgraw-Hill/David Brake. 7. Oliver, G.(1995). Promoting Today (fourth ed.). Prentice Hall. 8. Blagoev, V. (2003). Promoting (second ed.). 9. The Product Life Cycle. (2008). Recovered October 14, 2008, from

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Leadership in History Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Authority ever - Research Paper Example At the point when he came to control, Mr. Putin confronted various issues, problem and impediments in his administration. President Putin rose to control when the Chechnya issue was at the pinnacle, high debasement in the legislature and military, monetary emergency and picking between an arrangement not to condemn the previous president and doing whatever he accepted was directly as indicated by him(Baker and Glasser 117). That time denoted the most noticeably terrible time ever for the Russian economy, which required the best administration abilities to move the tide. Putin didn't let his residents down in this one. He settled on certain choices that however were dubious, wound up sparing the Russian economy. Actually, president Putin attempted especially to change the administration of Russia from a mobilized state to a socialist state by moving ceaselessly from military principle. Most nations accept that by being super-ground-breaking as far as military may, at that point their residents and the nation everywhere can be quiet. Be that as it may, this probably won't be the conspicuous case passing by Gorbachevs new deduction on global relations. He accepted that despite the fact that not all things can change for the time being, individuals will consistently have various ways to deal with specific issues. For harmony to win is to recognize the necessities and interests of each individual or nation and the equity of their equity globally and afterward endeavoring to give them (Gorbachevs). Similar notions appear to have inspired Putin’s administration passing by a portion of the choices he made with respect to his initiative. This paper will inspect the administration of Putin, the issues he experienced, how he came to control lastly how he managed the issues. Mr. Putin’s administration came when the issue of Chechen disobedience was disturbing government and needed to bring the administration that perceives the predicament of Chechnya and on a similar note not depicting the active President in terrible light. This was not the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Short Second Life of Bree Tanner Chapters 8

â€Å"I figure we ought to fol ow Riley. Discover what he's doing.† I gazed. â€Å"But he'l realize we followed him. He'l get our scents.† â€Å"I know. This is the means by which I figure it. I fol ow his fragrance. You keep clear by two or three hundred yards and fol ow my sound. At that point Riley just knows I fol owed him, and I can tel him this is on the grounds that I had something critical to share. That is the point at which I do the enormous uncover with the disco bal impact. What's more, I'l see what he says.† His eyes limited as he analyzed me. â€Å"But you†¦ you simply play it near the chest for the present, alright? I'l tel you if he's cool about it.† â€Å"What on the off chance that he returns right on time from any place he's going? Don't you need it to be near sunrise so you can glitter?† â€Å"Yes†¦ that is certainly a potential issue. What's more, it may influence the manner in which the discussion goes. In any case, I figure we should chance it. He appeared as though he was in a rush today around evening time, isn't that right? Like possibly he needs al night for whatever he's doing?† â€Å"Maybe. Or on the other hand possibly he was simply in a major rush to see her. You know, we might not have any desire to amaze him if she's nearby.† We both flinched. â€Å"True. Stil †¦Ã¢â‚¬  He glared. â€Å"Doesn't it feel like anything that's coming is drawing near? Like we probably won't have always to figure this out?† I gestured despondently. â€Å"Yeah, it does.† â€Å"So how about we take our risks. Riley confides in me, and I have a valid justification for needing to converse with him.† I contemplated this system. In spite of the fact that I'd just known him for a day, genuine y, I was stil mindful that this degree of suspicion was unusual for Diego. â€Å"This expand plan of yours†¦,† I said. â€Å"What about it?† he inquired. â€Å"It sounds sort of like a performance plan. Less a club experience. At any rate, not with regards to the hazardous part.† He grimaced that revealed to me I'd got him. â€Å"This is my thought. I'm the one who†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He faltered, experiencing difficulty with the following word. â€Å"†¦ confides in Riley. I'm the one in particular who's going to hazard jumping on his awful side in case I'm wrong.† Chicken as I might have been, this didn't fly with me. â€Å"Clubs don't work that way.† He gestured, his appearance hazy. â€Å"Okay, we'l consider it we go.† I didn't think he genuine y would not joke about this. â€Å"Stay in the trees, track me from above, ‘kay?† he said. â€Å"Okay.† He made a beeline for the log lodge, moving quick. I fol owed through the branches, the greater part of them so close-stuffed that I just infrequently needed to genuine y jump starting with one tree then onto the next. I kept my developments as smal as could be expected under the circumstances, trusting that the twisting of the limbs under my weight would simply look like breeze. It was a blustery night, which would help. It was cold for summer, not that the temperature disturbed me. Diego got Riley's aroma outside the house without inconvenience and afterward loped after it rapidly while I trailed a few yards back and around a hundred yards north, higher on the incline than he was. At the point when the trees were genuine y thick, he'd stir a trunk every so often so I wouldn't lose him. We kept on, with him running and me imitating a flying squirrel, for just fifteen minutes or so before I saw Diego delayed down. We more likely than not been drawing near. I moved higher in the branches, searching for a tree with a decent view. I scaled one that overshadowed its neighbors, and filtered the scene. Not exactly a large portion of a mile away was a huge hole in the trees, an open field that secured a few sections of land. Close to the focal point of the space, closer to the trees on its east side, was what resembled a larger than average gingerbread house. Painted splendid pink, green, and white, it was intricate to the point of ludicrousness, with extravagant trim and finials on each possible edge. It was the sort of thing I would have snickered at in an increasingly loosened up circumstance. Riley was no place in sight, yet Diego had arrived at a stand-still beneath, so I accepted this was the end purpose of our interest. Perhaps this was the swap house Riley was getti ng ready for when the large log lodge disintegrated. Then again, actually it was smal er than any of different houses we'd remained in, and it didn't appear as though it had a storm cellar. What's more, it was considerably farther away from Seattle than the last one. Diego gazed toward me, and I motioned for him to go along with me. He gestured and backtracked his path a little ways. At that point he made a huge jump †I thought about whether I could have bounced that high, even as youthful and solid as I was †and got a branch most of the way up the nearest tree. Except if somebody was as a rule phenomenally watchful, nobody ever would have seen that Diego'd made a side excursion off his way. Indeed, even stil, he bounced around in the treetops, ensuring his path didn't lead legitimately to mine. At the point when he last y concluded it was protected to go along with me, he grasped my hand immediately. Quietly, I gestured toward the gingerbread house. One corner of his mouth jerked. All the while we began edging toward the east side of the house, keeping high up in the trees. We got as close as we challenged †leaving a couple of trees as spread between the house and ourselves †and afterward sat quietly, tuning in. The breeze turned supportive y delicate, and we could hear something. Odd small brushing, ticking sounds. From the outset I didn't perceive what I was hearing, yet then Diego jerked another little grin, puckered his lips, and quietly kissed the air toward me. Kissing didn't sound the equivalent with vampires as it did with people. No delicate, meaty, fluid fil ed cel s to crunch against one another. Simply stone lips, no give. I had heard one kiss between vampires before †Diego's touch to my lips the previous evening †yet I could never have made the association. It was so distant from what I'd expected to discover here. This information spun everything around in my mind. I had expected Riley was going to see her, regardless of whether to get directions or bring her newcomers, I didn't have the foggiest idea. Be that as it may, I had never envisioned unearthing some sort of†¦ love home. How could Riley kiss her? I shivered and looked at Diego. He looked faintly appalled, as well, however he shrugged. I recalled that last night of humankind, recoiling as I recollected the distinctive consuming. I attempted to recal the minutes not long before that, through al the fuzziness†¦. First there was the crawling dread that had worked as Riley pul ed up to the dim house, the sentiment of security I'd had in the brilliant burger joint dissolving totally. I was keeping down, edging ceaselessly, and afterward he'd snatched my arm with a steel hold and yanked me out of the vehicle like I was a dol, weightless. Dread and skepticism as he'd jumped the ten yards to the entryway. Fear and afterward torment r uling out incredulity as he broke my arm hauling me through the entryway into the dark house. And afterward the voice. As I concentrated on the memory, I could hear it once more. High and repetitious, similar to a little girl's, yet cranky. A youngster pitching a fit. I recollected what she'd said. â€Å"Why did you at any point bring this one? It's too smal .† Something near that, I thought. The words probably won't be spot on, yet that was the importance. I was certain Riley had sounded anxious to satisfy when he replied, scared of frustrating. â€Å"But she's another body. Another interruption, at least.† I think I'd whimpered at that point, and he'd shaken me agonizing y, yet he hadn't addressed me once more. It resembled I was a pooch, not an individual. â€Å"This entire night has been a waste,† the kid's voice had griped. â€Å"I've kil ed them al . Ugh!† I recalled that the house had shivered at that point, as though a vehicle had col ided with the edge. I understood now that she'd likely recently kicked something in disappointment. â€Å"Fine. I surmise even somewhat one is superior to nothing, if this is all the better you can do. Furthermore, I'm so ful now I ought to have the option to stop.† Riley's hard fingers had vanished at that point and disregarded me with the voice. I'd been excessively terrified by then to make a sound. I'd quite recently shut my eyes, however I was at that point absolute y daze in the dimness. I didn't shout until something cut into my neck, consuming like a cutting edge covered in corrosive. I winced once again from the memory, attempting to push the following part from my psyche. Rather I focused on that short discussion. She hadn't seemed like she was conversing with her darling or even her companion. Progressively like she was conversing with a representative. One she didn't care for a lot and may fire soon. Be that as it may, the weird vampire kissing sounds proceeded. Somebody moaned in satisfaction. I scowled at Diego. This trade didn't tel us much. To what extent did we have to remain? He simply held his head as an afterthought, listening cautious y. What's more, following a couple of more minutes of tolerance, the low, sentimental sounds were out of nowhere intruded. â€Å"How many?† The voice was quieted by separation, yet stil particular. Also, unmistakable. High, right around a tril . Like a ruined little youngster. â€Å"Twenty-two,† Riley replied, sounding glad. Diego and I traded a sharp look. There were twenty-two of us, last time anyone checked, at any rate. They should discuss us. â€Å"I thought I'd lost two more to the sun, yet one of my more established children is†¦ obedient,† Riley proceeded. There was right around a warm stable to his voice when he talked about Diego as one of his children. â€Å"He has an underground spot †he concealed himself with the more youthful one.† â€Å"Are you sure?† There was a long respite, this time without any hints of sentiment. Indeed, even from this separation, I figured I could feel some strain. â€Å"Yeah. He's a decent child, I'm sure.† Another stressed interruption. I didn't comprehend her inquiry. I'm not catching her meaning, would you say you are certain? Did she think he'd heard the story from another person as opposed to seeing Diego for himself? â€Å"Twenty-two is good,† she considered, and the strain appeared to break up. â€Å"How is their conduct creating? Some of them are just about a year old. Do they stil fol ow the ordinary patterns?† â€Å"Yes,

Soil strengthening of age-old-designed railway tracks Research Paper

Soil reinforcing old enough old-structured railroad tracks - Research Paper Example Superstructure comprises of rails, attaching, and sleepers, and sub-structure comprises of weight, sub-balance, and sub-grade. This examination task contemplates the elements of base in track activity. Railroad base gets dynamic burden from train development and acts as per the standards and laws of soil mechanics. Soil execution under stacking in soil mechanics is administered by two qualities: quality and distortion (STRATIGRAPHICS n.d.). Quality alludes to the shear quality properties, and twisting alludes to settlement. The best possible working of foundation is described by the bearing limit which infers that shear stresses brought about by the cyclic stacking must be lower than the soil’s undrained shear quality worth, and simultaneously settlement won't create plastic conduct in the dirt. Following various long periods of activity, precariousness of both super and sub structures is brought about by the shear disappointment and plastic settlement of sub-grade. There are numerous elements that may add to the loss of soil-quality. Among them, poor seepage, and caught water in stabilizer pockets assume noteworthy jobs. As indicated by Harry Cedergreen, seepage speaks to a critical issue for railroad development and support; strength and low upkeep cost can possibly exist when sufficient waste is given (Cedergren 1989, p. 364). Sub-level disappointment in railroad language is called â€Å"soft track† (Australian Rail Track Corporation a 2001). Delicate track incorporates counterbalance disappointment, top arrangement disappointment, shallow sub-grade disappointment, bank disappointment, and avalanche disappointment. Water is one of the few donors that cause these disappointments. The extent of this task is to contemplate techniques... The reaction to the cyclic stacking of rail track is a connection of superstructure and foundation. Counterweight, sub-balance, and sub-grade identifies with base. Many years of activity bring basic changes of foundations. The sub-evaluations of the old existing rail tracks expect recovery to fulfill appropriate working and satisfy current specialized operational guidelines. The extent of this task is to discover the restoration approach for the current tracks of Australia. The arrangement must record that improvement of foundation by destroying the railroads isn't an alternative because of the vehicle breakdown, which is joined by monetary misfortunes. Recovery of the current railroad is definitely not a sheer issue that identifies with Australia just; it is likewise a noteworthy issue for the European nations, Canada, and USA. CSX Rail Line in Milstead, Alabama, USA confronted inordinate counterbalance settlement and soil siphoning issues because of the poor sub-grade conditions. A dditionally, Tallapoosa River runs corresponding to the rail line. The recovery of the track included raising the track, undermining and evacuating the current weight, and utilization of channel texture over the uncovered sub-balance, which was trailed by a layer of Geogrid

Friday, August 21, 2020

Sample Reactions Paper

Test Reading Reaction Paper The inquiry on page 4 of Miller is truly fascinating; on the off chance that you had an award where might you go to direct anthropological research and what might it be about? I thought as a student what I would do on the off chance that I ventured of a plane in some region. How might I even pick the province? Would you be able to pick any nation? Do you settle on a spot first, and afterward what you will inquire about, or is it the opposite way around? I got the chance to address a significant number of these inquiries in my preparation, however didn't completely assemble it till I did fieldwork.I likewise realized there is nobody answer to how, when, and where hands on work is led. Such a significant number of elements go into the procedure, there essentially can't be an all inclusive fit for anthropologists. The synopsis of the four subfields of human sciences is really astute and clear. Somebody in class raised whether the Garbage Project (or garbology as it’s regularly called) is extremely beneficial. I admit I think statically information can reveal to us the greater part of this. Further, with the set number of assets accessible to archeological I question if it’s a decent utilization of time and money.What about old human advancements and verifiably significant locales we have not investigated? In any case, an ongoing article in the New York Times Book Review made a few bits of knowledge I felt were appropriate to this subject. Talking about artistic analysis, the creator said that the significant piece of scholastic research was that regularly the benefit of something was not clear until some other time. Something that doesn't have a ton of pertinence today might be significantly important not far off. Maybe trash antiquarianism is such a field.Also, a piece I heard on NPR, with the anthropologist-in-living arrangement with the New York Sanitation office, tended to the point in a way I had not thought of. The a nthropologist was very convincing in the significance of getting sanitation, its move in present day society, and why some reflexivity on the issue is important. One of her significant activities has been to set up a historical center, which will house metropolitan records on sanitation, including things like road clearing, for the city. Given these two things, I may give garbology somewhat more breathing space than I once did.I was satisfied by the segment Miller remembered for applied human sciences, a subject we spread in extraordinary detail later on, as I feel it is significant. The reference to Paul Farmer, in a discourse box set apart from the remainder of the content, is magnificent. Rancher is an anthropologist whose work I didn't get comfortable with till graduate school. In any case, when I read his books I have been unendingly intrigued by his style of human sciences. Rancher is both a clinical specialist and an anthropologist.He doesn't simply go study individuals in fa raway spots; he goes to improve their lives. His energy and backing should fill in as a guide for our entire field. Farmer’s genuineness about the work we do, and the commitments we ought to have to the individuals we researched with, isn't something I have run over in numerous spots. Tracy Kidder’s book on Farmer, Mountains Beyond Mountains, is an awesome perused. In any case, Famer’s own books are significantly increasingly amazing, if somewhat more scholastic. I do feel a few things get hurried in the first chapter.The area on the historical backdrop of humanities is exceptionally short. While this isn't a book, or a class so far as that is concerned, on the historical backdrop of anthropological hypothesis and technique, a further improvement of the theme is educational. The thoughts we have today are refined from thoughts that we had previously. Understanding that we have refined, and even surrendered a few, thoughts shows the spot of human sciences on the planet. In addition, you don't have to waste time. Also, to convey the illustration further, a few wheels don't work. We take a gander at past thoughts so we can proceed onward from them.

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

Do You Like Like

Do You Like “Like” Almost a year ago I wrote Going Social about adding the Share button to blogs so that they could be easily shared via Facebook. As I said then, So starting today, youll see a Share on Facebook link at the bottom of every blog entry. By clicking this link, you may choose to publish the article to the News Feed of your five thousand closest Friends on Facebook. Everybody wins. Your Friends will see cool content they may have never stumbled across otherwise. You get to be the dude or dudette who provides the hook-up. And we get to spread our message to people who might otherwise never have seen it. I hope all of you found this useful. It certainly was used quite a bit! We had lots of referrals from the Share links, and I think, as I said before, that everyone won. But that was the beforetimes, and some things have changed. Facebook has moved away from the Share model and to the ubiquitous Like model you know, the one that is now on every site across the Internet. Its no secret that I dont like Like. And thats because I think that it is misleading. When Facebook underwent a substantial redesign a few months ago, they changed it so that, by default, things you like were displayed publicly on your profile. And that probably isnt what most users wanted. Most users wanted to share things with their Friends like a status update, not the whole world. So weve stuck with the Share button, because suited our purposes, wasnt creepy, and worked just fine. However, weve run into a problem, and that is that Facebook broke the Share button. If you look at the bottom of the page, where you once saw this: you now see: At first, I thought I just needed to update the code. But then I went to the Facebook Share Wizard, and lo, it looks like this: so its broken there too. Finally, on the Facebook Share Developers Wiki, a big blaring red banner across the top reads Note: To share pages from your website, you should consider using the Open Graph protocol and the Like button instead of Share, since its a simpler and easier to implement solution./font color. Ive emailed Facebook Support and havent heard back; I can only assume that Facebook Share is deprecated, and that it will not be fixed because Facebook Like is the Glorious New Future. So what Im asking all of you is: do you like Facebook Like? Perhaps more precisely would you be comfortable with something that looked like this: at the bottom of every page? One thing we would do is not include the faces/profile pictures of friends. That means that if friends of yours visit our website, they would not see your profile picture. However, they may see your name, if you have Liked the page. Furthermore, as Facebook says, this means when a user clicks a Like button on your page, a connection is made between your page and the user. Your page will appear in the Likes and Interests section of the users profile. As I said, if I had my druthers I would just use the Share button. But we seem to be in a bit of a bind, as Facebook breaks their services to push users and institutions towards preferred practices. Let me know what you think in the comments below. Are you OK with the Like button? Would you like to be able to easily share content from our site with your Facebook friends? Do you dislike the sort of connection that will be formed between our site and your Facebook presence, or is it A-OK? In any case, I would recommend that everyone take the time to check their Facebook privacy settings. In addition to the Facebook Privacy Dashboard, I would absolutely run the Facebook Privacy Scanner, Ka-Ping Yees Zesty Privacy Tool, and Facebooks own ViewAs Functionality; ensure that your Friends arent revealing more information about you than youd like; and generally take a few minutes out of your day to police your presence online. The Internet and Facebook are wonderful tools, but its all too easy to slip up when it comes to managing your privacy and reputation, especially in the case of the latter, the environment and design of which often confounds the privacy practices of the most sensible and sensitive individuals. So check yourself out, and then let me know what youd like us to do about social sharing.

Thursday, May 28, 2020

12 Angry Men Laissez-faire Style - Free Essay Example

One approach that this movie had was the laissez faire approach. This approach is defined as leading against the norm. When all twelve of the jurors come into the room, eleven of them decide quickly that the boy is guilty. They decided this because they wanted a quick and to the point process. This is an example of laissez faire as it is very much a hands-off approach. This is not a good form of leadership which is confirmed later on in the movie. Charismatic leadership is displayed by juror number eight. This juror goes against everyone elses opinion by questioning and arguing with them. He brings up many good points that slowly starts to change the other jurors minds of whether the boy is guilty or not guilty. Transactional leadership is displayed by the foreman of the jurors. He sits them down and tells them how things are going to go. Everyone will vote but there must be a 100% agreement. He keeps them focused on the topic at hand. Leadership is seen throughout the whole movie. A contingency theory is when success is dependent on the specific situation at hand and how certain factors help to determine the success or failure. I feel this theory best explains the leadership of this group. Juror number eight displayed this theory throughout the movie. He did not know anything about the other jurors but knew he was going to be looked down upon for going against the majority vote. He listened to what each one had to say and the suggestions they had and adjusted his leadership style by the reactions of other jurors. This led him to having great success in this case. Roles that focus on completing the task are known as task roles. I feel that juror number eight was the major task role of the film. Juror number eight initiated a deeper conversation about the case because he was the first to vote not guilty. He provided good information that other jurors had not thought of before suggesting the kid was guilty. Juror eight listened to what others had to say about the case. He then gave his opinion on whether that information could be used or whether he thought it was un-useful information. He valued the opinions of the other jurors. Juror number eight also evaluated each and every situation. He assessed the ideas, arguments and suggestions of each point brought up. He thought critically about the information. Self-centered roles are roles that focus on the person themselves. They are not focused on the issue at hand. Juror number three was very self-centered. He blocks out what everyone else thinks and prevents others from participating. He disagreed with what everyone had to say and was not willing to compromise in anyway. He felt his vote was correct and that is the way it should be. Juror number six was also self-centered. He made unfitting comments and distracted the other members due to goofing off. Juror number six was always countered by juror number eight. Juror eight would evaluate what juror six said and would give his opinion on the topic. Roles that affect how the group gets along are known as maintenance roles. Juror number nine was a maintenance role of this film. He encouraged every persons comments and agreed with each member. He listened to what everyone had to say and provided comments when necessary. Task, maintenance, and self-centered roles all created a problem sometime throughout the movie. The foreman would step in and break up any arguments happening. He would bring the group back to what the situation at hand was. When he tried to give up his seat as foreman, many jurors told him what a good job he does and told him to continue being foreman. Many of the jurors involved with the case were selfish and one-sided. At the beginning they all felt that their opinion was the only one that mattered. Juror number eight was the leader and he was able to get the jurors all on the same page to unite their decision. The verbal behaviors that the jurors contributed were identification, conflict management, investigating language, and interdependence. The nonverbal communication included defensive and supportive behavior, good eye contact, and the body language of the jurors. The foreman-initiated conversation about the case. He also contributed to the conversation with the jurors. Juror number eight evaluated what the other jurors had to say. Juror eight was able to get all of the jurors on the same page for a decision to be made. Substantive, procedural, and affective conflict were all expressed through out 12 Angry Men. Substantive conflict is when members disagree on the issues the group needs to address or the groups values. A substantive conflict example in this movie is when all of the jurors vote not guilty but juror number eight. Procedural conflict is a disagreement on how to achieve a goal or resolution. An example of procedural conflict in the film is when juror number seven does not agree with the process in which voting is being handled. Since he does not agree with the process he votes not guilty and says to get this over with, so they do not have to deal with it any more. Affective conflict is a conflict that revolves around differences or dislikes between individuals. The differences between juror number eight and juror number three are an example of affective conflict. Positive attitude was shown by juror number eight as he was attentive on the issue directly, respected all of the other jurors , and he wanted to fix the conflicts. Juror number three showed a negative attitude due to the tone of his voice, how defensive he was, and it continued to be competitive. Juror number eight was good and helpful when it came to resolving the conflicts with the other jurors. He was able to explain the opinion he had when each juror would bring up another issue with the case. In the end he was able to get everyone to agree. Argumentation is the action or process of reasoning systematically in support of an idea, action, or theory. One argument analysis brought up in the movie is the knife that the boy used to murder his dad. The pawn shop said it was a unique and that they sold it to the boy. The boy said he had lost it out of a hole in his jeans. Juror number eight then pulls a knife out of his pocket that he bought from a store and said there were others like it. So, the knife is not unique to the area. Another argument analysis was when the old lady states that she saw the boy kill his dad through the train windows while the train was passing by. Juror number eight then brought up that others have said that you can see through the windows of an empty passing train at night. It was brought up that it would not have been a clear picture due to the speed of the train. The last argument that I have found is when the old man that lives next to them said he heard the boy state Ill kill you to the father, h eard a body fall, and the boy run down the stairs out of the department. The old man said within seconds he heard the body fall to the ground. Juror number eight said there would have been at least a ten second pause and with the noise of the train going by there would be no good proof that it was the body falling to the ground. Each juror evaluates the situation differently due to the different personalities of each man. Juror number three is very judgmental toward the boy due to the relationship he had with his own son. Other jurors were not phased by the fact that they were deciding the rest of a childs life. They just wanted to be outside or anywhere but the court room. Juror number eight thought critically about the fact that he was deciding the life of an eighteen-year-old. It would be unnecessary to send him to jail for life or many years if he was not guilty. By the end of the movie, juror number eight was able to get all jurors to think about the fact that they were deciding the rest of the life of an eighteen-year-old.